Appendix C: N x N associative matrices showing connections among the associates of each normed word.

Copyright © Nelson, McEvoy & Schreiber


  1. Matrices.A-B (1.5 MB)
  2. Matrices.C (1.3 MB)
  3. Matrices.D-F (1.6 MB)
  4. Matrices.G-K (1.3 MB)
  5. Matrices.L-O (1.5 MB)
  6. Matrices.P-R (1.6 MB)
  7. Matrices.S (1.6 MB)
  8. Matrices.T-Z (1.4 MB)
  9. All MIAS (128 K)

Format. Appendix C contains files for n x n associative matrices saved in Microsoft's Rich Text Format to preserve the layout, as well as a text file for MIAs (non-normed associates of normed words). The files labeled Matrices.A-B, and so on, can be opened in WORD or BBEdit. These files contain all of the targets that have been normed beginning with the specified letters. If the layout is lost during import, we suggest that it be opened in WORD, then select the entire file and convert the font to Courier regular 9 point. Then, in Page Set Up, select Horizontal and a 78% Scale. With these choices, each matrix in the file will appear organized and readable even for the words with the largest numbers of associates. The ALL MIAS file is a text file that can be opened in WORD, BBEDit, StatView, or Excel. The latter two programs can be used to open this file in columns.

Data. Appendix C provides an alphabetical listing of the n x n associative matrices for the normed words along with a file for missing associates. The ALL MIAS file lists the normed words with associates that have not yet been normed, their set size, each missing associate, the rank of the missing associate in the set and, finally, its strength. In general, missing associates represent weak associates in the set of the normed word, and have a mean rank in the set of 12.62 (SD = 4.78) and a mean strength of connection to the normed word of .02 (SD = .01).

The files labeled Matrices.A-B, and so on, offer a two-dimensional view of the information in Appendix A. The matrices provide a concrete representation of associative structure for a given word and they can be useful when interest is focused on controlling or manipulating the number and pattern of connections between a word and its associates. For example, as shown in Table 9, the word DINNER has a set of five associates, including supper, eat, lunch, food, and meal. In this matrix and in all others, only the first three letters of each associate are shown on the columns to conserve space (each associate is printed completely on the rows).

DINNER  Mss:5  MssA:12.60 Conc:5.38 ConcA:5.46 Freq:91 ConnA:17 ConnM:3.40 
ResP:0.60 UI:1.00

DINNER    | - |.54|.11|.10|.09|.09| - | - | - | - | - |
SUPPER    |.55|   |.02|.03|.17|.01| 4 |.80|.06|11 |.36|
EAT       |   |   |   |   |.41|.02| 2 |.40|.21|11 |.18|
LUNCH     |.27|.02|.08|   |.20|.06| 4 |.80|.09|17 |.24|
FOOD      |   |   |.41|.01|   |.02| 3 |.60|.14|18 |.17|
MEAL      |.21|.06|.06|.06|.49|   | 4 |.80|.17| 6 |.67|
#Connect  |  3|  2|  4|  3|  4|  4|
΅ Strength|.34|.04|.14|.03|.32|.03|
Table 9
DINNER and the connections among its associates.

To construct each matrix, each of its associates was normed with separate groups of subjects, e.g.,SUPPER was presented to one group, EAT to another, and so on. The matrices contain forward strengths and should be read along their rows from left to right. For example, when SUPPER was normed, it produced LUNCH as a target with a forward strength of .03. To determine backward strength, look up the pair in reverse order, e.g., for LUNCH-to- SUPPER look in the LUNCH row which shows this value to be .02. The total number of matrices (4,095) presented in this appendix is smaller than the total number of normed words (5, 019) because any normed word having an non-normed associate stronger than .04 was eliminated from the pool. Of the words comprising the pool, an average of 92% (SD = 8%) of their associates have been normed. The absence of a value in the matrix is interpreted as an indication that there is either no connection or that it is too weak to be measured by free association and therefore represents a negligible value that presumably can be ignored.

As can be seen by reading along the first column of the matrix, some of the words produced by DINNER also produce this word as a response (e.g., supper, lunch and meal each produce DINNER). The DINNER-to-supper-to-DINNER connection is an example of a 2- step link (.54 x .55), and for convenience of reference we refer to such links as resonant connections because they return to the target. Also note that there are associate-to-associate connections throughout the matrix, e.g., supper is connected to each of the other four associates in the set, eat is connected to food and meal, and so on. In our terms, such connections define the connectivity of the normed word.

Indices of both resonance and connectivity are reported in the printed version of the norms and in other appendices because they appear to effect cued recall and recognition (e.g., Nelson, Bennett, Gee, & Schreiber, 1993; Nelson et al., 1998). They may be important in other tasks as well, and such values are reported in Appendices A and B with a USE CODE (UC) index of 1 or 0. In Appendix C all of the reported matrices have a UC index of 1. A UC of 1 indicates that all of the critical associates of a word have been normed. Given an interest in either resonance or connectivity as variables, only those with a UC designation of 1 should be selected in building lists for experiments. An even more stringent criterion can be used by selecting only those items with a Usability Index (UI) of 1.00. At the top of each matrix, the UI index indicates the proportion of associates normed.

Quick Reference. Each matrix provides some redundant as well as some new information about each normed word that is listed on the same line as the normed word. It also provides a list of the missing associates listed under the matrix, if any, as well as summary calculations on the rows and columns that some may find useful. It should be noted that summary calculations appearing in the ProbConnec row have been adjusted for missing associates and self- connections (each were subtracted from the divisor). The information provided about the target is defined in Table 10 (see other Appendices for comparable statistics):

Table 10
Abbreviations of terms and their equivalencies in Appendix C.
Abbreviation Definition
Mss (also see QSS or TSS) Meaning Set Size of Normed Word
MssA Average Meaning Set Size of the Associates
of the Normed Word
Conc (also see CON) Concreteness Rating of the Normed Word
ConcA Average Concreteness Rating of the
Associates of the Normed Word
Freq (Also see QFR &TFR) Kucera & Francis (1967) Printed Frequency
of the normed Word
ConnA Number of Connections Among the
Associates of the Normed Word
ConnM (also see QMC & TMC) Mean number of Connections for Each
Associate of the Normed Word
ResP (also see QPR & TPR) Probability that the Associates Produce the
Normed Word as an Associate
UI Usability Index